A philosophy and a spiritually-oriented psychotherapy developed by the Italian psychiatrist, Roberto Assagioli, beginning in the 1920s. It postulates the existence of the self, one's center of awareness and purpose. Eternal and unchanging, it is the belvedere point from which all the varying thoughts, emotions, and body sensations may be observed.
Among the many methods for the discovery of the self: guided imagery and the dis-identification ( not dis-owning ) from one's feelings, body, mind, thoughts, emotions, and subpersonalities. The basic text is:
Assagioli, Roberto Psychosynthesis: A Manual of Principles and Techniques,
New York: Viking, 1965
A longer definition and many links to other psychosynthesis resources may be found on the Psychosynthesis Home Page hosted by Dirk H. Kelder.
A phenomenological-existential psychotherapy that was developed by Fritz and Laura Perls, Paul Goodman, and Ralph Hefferline in the '40s and '50s. It focuses on awareness, what is happening in the present moment, and on taking responsibility.
Probably the best introduction to gestalt therapy is the chapter in Corsini and Wedding's Current Psychotherapies written by Gary Yontef and James Simkin. A version of it is available at
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