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Origins of the Cold War, Part One,1917-1945

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 10 11 12 13 14 15 16                         p.9

September 19, 1944

At the urging of Prime Minister Churchill, FDR and Churchill sign a secret memorandum that "the world" is not to be told of the atomic bomb before its use and steps should be taken to see that there is no leakage of information from Professor Bohr "particularly to the Russians". Full collaboration between the two countries "for military and commercial purposes" will continue after the defeat of Japan. (32) [To the dismay of the British, President Truman would simply abrogate the agreement for joint authority for nuclear weapons and claim that no copy of such an accord could be found. The 1946 McMahon Act which he signed barred the US from sharing atomic secrets with any country, even the United Kingdom which had initiated the research. (33)]

Notes and Sources

October 9, 1944

Prime Minister Churchill and British Foreign Minister Anthony Eden meet with Stalin in Moscow and--- in violation of the principles of the Atlantic Charter--- make the following offer to Stalin: after the war Russia may have 90% predominance in Rumania, 80% predominance in Bulgaria and Hungary in exchange for Britain's having 90% predominance in Greece with Yugoslavia split 50-50. Stalin agrees. (No mention is made of Poland, the country over whose fate Britain had entered the war.) (34) [British troops arrived in Greece that month, the Germans having been driven out by ELAS, the People's Liberation Army. (Its political counterpart, EAM, embraced the entire left---communists, socialists, many priests, a few bishops--- and numbered nearly two million people out of Greece's seven million.) (35)]

December 4, 1944

Civil war breaks out in Athens. [Churchill sent in more British troops to preserve the Greek monarchy and crush the rebels, members of ELAM-ELAS, the Communist-dominated partisan group that had been most active in defeating the Germans. The British were assisted by remnants of the Nazi Security Battalions. This while the Allies were still fighting the Germans! The Greeks did not want their King George back, so Churchill was forced to accede to the establishment of a regency by the end of the month. Stalin, true to his October agreement with Churchill, did not interfere and no word of criticism appeared in Pravda, the Communist Party's official newspaper. In fact, the January armistice agreed to by ELAS may have been prompted by Moscow. Much of the American public protested the British action, showing more concern for events in this region than in Poland. Stalin later took over Bulgaria and then Rumania, but with far less blood than was shed in Greece. (36)]

December 30, 1944

One-third of the American public is dissatisfied with the extent of Big Three cooperation; of these, 54% blame Great Britain, 18% blame Russia. (37)

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