Notes and Sources

Origins of the Cold War, Part One, 1917-1945

1. Beatrice Farnsworth,  William C. Bullitt and the Soviet Union,  Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1967, pp. 32-70.

2. Japan had occupied Manchuria in 1931, renaming it Manchukuo.  When sanctioned for this violation of international law by the League of Nations, Japan withdrew its membership in the League.

3. Richard Lamb,  The Drift toward War: 1922-1939,  New York: St. Martin's Press, 1991., pp.262-273.

4. William Stevenson,  A Man Called Intrepid: The Secret War,  New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1978, p. 82.

5. Anthony Cave Brown,  "C": The Secret Life of Sir Stewart Menzies, Spymaster to Winston Churchill,  New York: Macmillan,1987, pp. 190-191.

6. Robert Shogan,  Hard Bargain: How FDR Twisted Churchill's Arm, Evaded the Law, and Changed the Role of the American President,  New York: Scribner, 1995, p. 48.

7. Thomas A. Bailey and Paul B. Ryan,  Hitler vs. Roosevelt: The Undeclared Naval War,  New York: Free Press, 1979, pp. 16-17.

8. Lithuania was to go to Germany; Finland, Estonia and Latvia to the Soviet Union.  Stalin violated the agreement in 1940 by swallowing Lithuania along with the two other Baltic republics, Estonia and Latvia.

8-1. Stevenson, p.45;  Richard J. Barnet,  The Rockets' Red Glare: When America Goes to War: The President and the People ,  New York: Simon and Schuster, 1990, pp. 197-198.

9. Stevenson, p. 59.

10. Bailey and Ryan, p. 66.

11. Bailey and Ryan, p. 77.

12. Documents forged by Hitler's spymaster, Reinhard Heydrich, caused Stalin to believe that these men were German agents. As a consequence, more than half of the Soviet officers--- 35,000 men--- all the top admirals, three out of four marshals were eliminated. Stevenson, p. 34.

13. This conversation, reported to Tokyo using their Purple Code machine, was known to FDR and Churchill less than seventy-two hours after the event thanks to the Magic decrypting.  Bruce Lee,  Marching Orders: The Untold Story of World War II,  New York: Crown, 1995, p. 29.

14. John Lewis Gaddis,  We Now Know: Rethinking Cold War History,  New York, Oxford University Press, 1997, p. 13; John Lewis Gaddis,  The United States and the Origins of the Cold War,  New York: Columbia University Press, 1972, p. 80.

15. V. E. Tarrant,  The Red Orchestra,  New York: John Wiley, 1996, p. 131, 162-163.

16. Gaddis, We Now Know, p. 8.

17. Charles Higham,  Trading with the Enemy: An Exposé of the Nazi-American Money Plot, 1933-1949,  New York: Delacorte, 1983, p. 178.

18. James P. Duffy,  Hitler Slept Late and Other Blunders that Cost Him the War,  New York: Praeger, 1991, pp. 96-97; Christopher Simpson,  Blowback: America's Recruitment of Nazis and Its Effects on the Cold War,  New York: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1988, pp. 18-21, 158-160.]

19. See I .F. Stone's articles in The Nation for October 3 and 31 and November 14, 1942 quoted in I. F. Stone,  The War Years, 1939-1945,  Boston: Little, Brown, 1988, pp. 123-131.

20. Tarrant, p. 174.

21. Gaddis, Origins, p. 135;  Gaddis, We Now Know, p. 19;  David Remnick,  Lenin's Tomb: The Last Days of the Soviet Empire,  New York: Random House, 1993, pp. 3-5.

22. Gaddis, Origins, pp. 47-56.

23. Don S. Kirschner,  Cold War Exile: The Unclosed Case of Maurice Halperin,  Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 1995;  NSA,  Venona Project.

24. Gaddis, Origins, pp. 88-91.

25. Gaddis, Origins, pp. 174-197.

26. Gaddis, Origins, pp. 101-102, 136-139.

27. Gaddis, Origins, pp. 141, 151.

28. Gaddis, Origins, pp. 20-23.

29. Gaddis, Origins, pp. 114-125; Stone, The War Years, p. 278.

30. Peter Kurth,  American Cassandra: The Life of Dorothy Thompson,  Boston: Little, Brown, 1990, pp. 364-370.

31. Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr. "The Origins of the Cold War", Foreign Affairs (October, 1967), p. 34.

32. Gaddis, Origins, pp. 86-88;  David Dimbleby and David Reynolds,  An Ocean Apart: The Relationship between Britain and America in the Twentieth Century,  New York: Random House, 1988, p. 181.

33. Martin Walker,  The Cold War: A History,  New York: Henry Holt, 1993, p. 23.

34. Herbert Feis,  Churchill, Roosevelt, Stalin:  The War They Waged and the Peace They Sought,  Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1957, pp. 448-449.

35. William Blum,  The CIA: A Forgotten History, US Global Interventions Since World War 2,  London: Zed Books, 1986, pp. 31-33; D. F. Fleming,  The Cold War and Its Origins, 1917-1960,  2 vol., Garden City: Doubleday, 1961, pp. 174-187.

36. Robert E. Sherwood,  Roosevelt and Hopkins: An Intimate History,  New York: Harper and Brothers, 1948, pp. 840-842;  Blum, pp. 31-33;  Fleming, pp. 174-187;  Gaddis, Origins, pp. 154-155.

37. Gaddis, Origins, p. 155.

38. Gaddis, Origins, p. 190-197, 259.

39. Walker, pp. 12-13.

40. The Anglo-Americans at the same time conceded the need of the Soviet Union to have "friendly" neighbors on her borders after the horrors of the Nazi 1941 invasion.  Yet it should have been obvious that after the atrocious behavior of the Red Army in its occupation of Poland in 1940 and in the sweep across Eastern Europe after Stalingrad, free elections would not result in governments acceptable to Stalin.  It is estimated that Russian troops raped at least two million German women in 1945 and 1946. Gaddis, We Now Know, p. 45.

41. FDR secured Stalin's agreement to enter the war by promising him the Kurile Islands and Sakhalin in an overnight note.

42. Fleming, p. 225.

43. Gaddis, Origins, p. 165.

44. Peter Grose,  Gentleman Spy: The Life of Allen Dulles,  Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1994, pp. 226-245 and Allen Dulles, The Secret Surrender,  New York: Harper and Row, 1966.

45. Fleming, v. 1, pp. 208-209;  Feis, p. 566.

46. Dulles, pp. 147-151.

47. Stephen E. Ambrose,  Eisenhower: Soldier and President,  New York: Simon and Schuster, 1990, pp. 192-194.

48. Dulles, p. 151.

49. Gaddis, Origins, pp. 206-209.

50. Harry S. Truman,  Memoirs: Volume One, Year of Decisions,  Garden City: Doubleday, 1955, pp. 70-72.

51. David McCullough,  Truman,  New York: Simon and Schuster, 1992, pp. 374-376;  Gaddis, Origins, p. 200;  Walker, pp. 18-20.

52. Gaddis, Origins, p. 226;  Fleming, v.1, p. 279;  Nation, CLX, 12 May 1945, pp. 534-535;  Kirschner, p. 80.

53. Robert J. Donovan,  Conflict and Crisis: The Presidency of Harry S. Truman, 1945-1948,  New York: Norton, 1977, pp. 53-54.

54. Covert Action Intelligence Bulletin, Number 35, Fall 1990, pp. 10-13.

55. Walker, pp. 23-24;  Truman, p. 416.

56. Richard F. Haynes,  The Awesome Power: Harry S. Truman as Commander in Chief,  Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1973, pp. 38-39.

57. Peter Wyden,  Day One: Before Hiroshima and After,  New York: Simon and Schuster, 1984;  Jonathan M. Weisgall, Operation Crossroads: The Atomic Tests at Bikini Atoll,  Annapolis: Naval Institute Press, 1994, p. 7;  Los Angeles Times, July 7, 1991.

58. Walter Isaacson and Evan Thomas,  The Wise Men: Six Friends and the World They made: Acheson, Bohlen, Harriman, Kennan, Lovett, McCloy,  New York: Simon and Schuster, 1986, p. 316.

59. The names of the officials who authorized this "bargain with the devil" are still classified.  Among those certainly involved, however, were Admiral William D. Leahy (chief of staff and HST's national security advisor) and Allen Dulles (OSS station chief in Bern during the war and later director of the CIA under Eisenhower).  It is unknown whether or not HST knew about the deal with Gehlen.  Covert Action Information Bulletin 35, pp. 13-16.

60. Walker, p. 26.

61. Walker, pp. 46-47.