Progressive Politics Research and Commentary by Janette Rainwater
 
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     Minus Button which collapses the expandable menu Afghanistan, "Terrorism," and Blowback
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Afghanistan, "Terrorism" and Blowback: A Chronology
by
Janette Rainwater, Ph.D.

                                p13

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[The perpetrators were Kashmiri fundamentalist Muslims who had fought in the Russo-Afghan war, using weapons diverted from the CIA-ISI pipeline. Many had been trained at the Afghani Zawar camp by Hekmatyar (who also was instrumental in smuggling the weapons into Kashmir.) The bombings were supported by the ISI and the bin Laden organization in what was described during the 1994 trial as a "proxy war, terrorism sponsored by a neighboring hostile country." Cooley, pp. 228-23. Ahmed Rashid notes that India came close to persuading the United States to declare Pakistan a "state sponsor of terrorism" for these and previous terrorist acts of the Kashmiri mujaheddin. Pakistan's response was to move their bases out of Pakistan and into eastern Afghanistan. The Jahalabad mullahs and the Taliban were reimbursed for the support and training of the militants; private Islamic parties such as Usama bin Laden were encouraged to contribute. This was a big policy shift for Pakistan whose relations with Afghanistan had been semi-hostile previously. Relations had been severed in 1955 and again in 1962 over Kabul's push for a "Greater Pashtunistan." Rashid, p. 186. ]

June, 1993    Blowback in USA: A plot to blow up the UN building, the Holland and Lincoln tunnels and six other targets in New York City is discovered and aborted. More to come.

October 3, 1993    In Somalia a gun battle between US "peacekeepers" and the forces of indicted General Muhammad Farah Aydid leaves 18 US soldiers dead. [There had been near-constant civil war in Somalia ever since independence from Britain and Italy in 1960. In 1991 drought and famine escalated the death toll with thousands dying every month. Food was sent by international food airlifts and then by ships to the four ports. In December 1992 President Bush offered to send US ground troops to protect the food shipments and the relief workers, an offer that was accepted by UN Secretary-General Boutros Boutros-Ghali. In June 1993 General Aydid's troops ambushed a group of UN Pakistani soldiers, killing 24. The UN ordered the arrest of General Aydid, and the "peace keeping" degenerated into guerrilla warfare between US-UN soldiers and the general. Soon after this humiliating defeat President Clinton withdrew all American troops from Somalia. Usama bin Laden would later claim credit for having trained and inspired the guerrillas. www.altapedia.com]

April 7, 1994    King Fahd of Saudi Arabia announces that Usama bin Laden has been deprived of his Saudi citizenship for behavior that "contradicts the Kingdom's interests and risks harming its relations with fraternal countries." [Pressure had been put on the king by Egyptian President Mubarak, Yemen and Interpol. Also about this time bin Laden was disowned by his extensive and influential family in Saudi Arabia. Cooley, p. 123.]

October 12, 1994    The Pakistani transport and smuggling mafia essentially hire the Taliban to wrest control of the crucial border town of Spin Baldak from Hekmatyar and his bandits who are charging exorbitant tolls. The Taliban are successful, losing only one soldier out of the 200-man contingent. Part of their booty is a large munitions depot containing 18,000 Kalashnikovs and several vehicles. Rashid, pp. 27-28.

November 4, 1994    The Taliban emerge as a significant military and political force when they rescue a Pakistani convoy that has been captured by local Kandahar warlords who demand a large ransom, a share of the convoy's profits, and Pakistan's pledge to stop support of the Taliban. [With the loss of only a dozen men the Taliban routed the warlords, hanged the commander from the barrel of his tank and proceeded on to capture Kandahar, Afghanistan's second largest city. Then they cleared the chains from all the toll roads, making it safe for Pakistani commerce and smuggling.]

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This site was last changed November 28, 2001. It was created on March 20, 1997.

© Janette Rainwater 1997-2001

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